Cancer

Cancer affects us all, either directly or indirectly as we become involved through caring for a relative or offering sympathy to a friend One in three people develops cancer and one in four people dues of cancer in the United Kingdom. It is a sensitive illness to dis, evoking fear and other difficult emotions. However, as with most things that worry us the more the topic is in the open the more the fear of it dissipates the more opportunities, we have to discuss how to fight cancer the better prepared we will be. Throughout this book you will pick up the message that there is a definite correlation between what you eat how you cat. your general state of health and your ability to resist disease cancer is no exception.

All the evidence shows that the earlier in life we start eating and living healthy lives the smaller the risk of developing cancer According to the World Cancer Research Fund. 30 to 40 per cent of cancer incidence worldwide is preventable by eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly. Food always has a role to play, either as a preventive measure or as a therapy which boosts the immune system and provides the body with the nutrients it needs not only to fight the cancer cells but also to support cancer treatments.

There are many delicious combinations of foods that will boost your nutritional status and your immune system. Most importantly, you need to keep the issue of food in its right place Eating should not become a task: you should enjoy putting together meals that contain the nutrients that will help your body. Don’t set apart the person with cancer. I shouldn’t be cry to serve them something completely different at the meal table -banish liquidated meal and supplement drinks. Recipes can be found and adapted that will still all the   tonal and physical requirements and still enable you to enjoy your food.

one of my patients had cancer of the esophagus, the feeding tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. The treatments made his throat exceedingly sore and swallowing difficult. He had been advised that he could get all the nutrients he needed from manufactured plotted drinks, which in essence was correct. But what a way to spend your life, drinking Him shakes. We managed to put together meals containing dishes such as chicken and almond. Maule omelet with a wild mushroom sauce and crème caramel with the dishes he www able to join it with normal meals and compared some self-respect- something that re journal disappears when you have a serious illness and have to rely on others to care for your Lifestyle changes Food is a powerful weapon in the fight against cancer, but it can only perform its special magic in the right environment. Above all, respect your body.

TRY TO STOP SMOKING

You will be doing yourself a big favor. Not only will giving up smoking decrease your risk of cancer and heart disease. I will also improve your skin and energy levels. Avoid passive smoking as much as you can Parents should be vigilant about avoiding their children’s exposure to passive smoking.

TAKE REGULAR AEROBIC EXERCISE

Ideally you should take a brisk, lengthy walk every day and exercise vigorously for a total of one hour a week. Exercise is not only a valuable stress reliever, but it has also been shown to help the body produce anti-cancer substances and generally help the body stay healthy and strong. Exercise decreases the risk of developing cancer of the colon and possibly cancer of the breast and lung. If you are unable to exercise vigorously, just try to get out into the fresh air as much as possible and mobilize your body. Every little activity helps.

KEEP YOUR WEIGHT WITHIN THE IDEAL RANGE

Several studies suggest that overweight people are at greater risk of developing cancer, particularly of their reproductive system: the uterus, endometrium. and possibly the breast in postmenopausal women, and the prostate in men. The prognosis is also less positive in people who carry excess weight.

WASH FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES BEFORE EATING

Fertilizers, pesticides and chemicals from industrial and vehicle pollution can build up in the body and become carcinogenic However, it has to be said that on current evidence if you eat a varied and balanced diet the likelihood of you taking in sufficient levels of chemicals to cause cancer directly is small. Eat organic produce if possible.

CHECK YOUR BODY REGULARLY

Monitor any changes and real any lumps, particularly in the breasts or the testes. The majority of lumps found in the breasts are non-cancerous but it is a good habit to check the breast and surrounding area once a month after your period. One of the main reasons why cancer of the prostate can be particularly virulent is that men are generally not as diligent as women at examining their body for abnormal lumps and bumps, so the tumor can be there for a long time before it is detected. If detected and treated early the prognosis in the majority of cases is good. Men should examine their testes and surrounding area once a month Men over the age of fifty should see their doctor annually for a prostate check, which includes a PSA antigen blood test.

The anti-cancer diets

Food’s interaction with cancer can be seen in two ways. First, food can be a major preventer: it can help keep your immune system strong and your body more capable of fending off damage from its environment. Strong professional opinion throughout the world supports the role of nutrition in helping to prevent major diseases such as cancer Secondly, food can be used to help treat certain cancers, either directly through boosting the immune system or indirectly by helping to relieve symptoms of the cancer or the cancer therapy. Food, finally, can provide a positive refreshing interlude in a life dominated by illness and treatments The cancer resisting plan is based on a well-balanced diet described in the section on Understanding your nutritional needs. Some points are particularly relevant for the prevention of cancer, so let’s look at these in more detail.

THINK FIBRE

This means eating plenty of fresh vegetables, fruits, pulses, wholegrain cereals and wholegrain bread, brown rice and whole-wheat pasta A diet rich in fiber can decrease the risk of cancer of the mouth pharynx, Jung’s (evidence is strongest for green leafy vegetables and stomach (particularly raw vegetables, green vegetables and the allium, or onion, family). Diets rich in carrots, tomatoes and citrus fruits decrease the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum One of the main reasons why everyone is recommended to eat at least five helpings of fresh fruits and vegetables a day is that they are not only rich in fiber, they also contain important antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

THINK ANTIOXIDANTS

There has been a great deal of research linking antioxidant vitamins and minerals with the prevention and treatment of cancer. I believe that as a first goal you should look to boosting the number of natural antioxidants in your diet, eating them in a way that allows your body to metabolize them efficiently If you take a supplement it should be under the guidance of a doctor or dietitian, but in 99 per cent of cases supplements shouldn’t be necessary. The antioxidants found naturally in foods seem to be used better by the body than those in supplements. In addition, it is quite easy to take an excess of certain vitamins and minerals from supplements, particularly if you take a combination of them.

It is usually impossible to overdose on any particular antioxidant from natural foods – the bulk of the food and monotony of chomping through piles of carrots, for instance, usually stops people from overdoing it The main antioxidant vitamins are beta-carotene (converted to vitamin A by the body), vitamin C and vitamin E. The best food sources of all three are fresh fruits and vegetables, in addition, vitamin E is provided by nuts, seeds, vegetable ails and wholegrain cereals Remember that vitamin C is fast through storage and cooking, so the fresher your fruits and vegetables and the quicker you cook eat them raw) the more your will One of the main antioxidant minerals Research has linked low levels of selenium the body with an increased risk of cancer, which means that if you diet rich in selenium you have lower risk of developing you have cancer, you have greater chance fighting A well balanced diet will give you more than enough Good sources of selenium include fish of all sorts, chicken, liver and kidney, wholegrain products, nuts and mushrooms.

THINK VEGETABLES AND SALADS

The benefits of vegetables do not stop with fiber, vitamins and minerals: they also contain individual substances that can help protect the body against cancer and other diseases. The best way to include the recommended five daily helpings of vegetables and fruit in your diet is to eat them as part of your in soups. as main ingredients or accompaniments, in puddings – don’t leave them until you are too full enjoy them.

Green vegetables such as lettuce, spinach and broccoli rich in which are converted in the body into potent antibacterial chemical. This is of the body’s natural lines of defense against food In addition, the disinfectant effect of this on bacteria in the stomach is thought to help protect the stomach against cancer by killing the bacterium Helicobacter which now believed to cause many cases of the disease.

Folic acid can help in an anti-cancer because it is needed for the production of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the molecule that controls aspects of cell growth and Boosting your intake of folic acid rich foods, which include spring greens, fresh peas and broccoli, will help your body resist cancer and other diseases. See page 39 for other sources of folic.

Watercress can help smokers fight cancer. It does this by neutralizing one of the most dangerous chemicals in tobacco, NNK, by causing the body to release Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). You will receive most when you eat raw watercress, so try it in salads, such as watercress and smoked mackerel salad, or as a sandwich filling with salmon and cream Far more effective, of course, is to give up smoking.

• Tomatoes also have role to play in cancer prevention. Harvard University researchers report men who eat at least ten servings of foods week are up to 45 per cent less likely to develop cancer of the ‘secret ingredient here is lycopene. Low levels of a substance found in have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Ten servings may sound a little daunting, but is not too difficult if you think of grilled tomatoes, sliced tomatoes in sandwiches, tomato sauces, soups and salads.

THINK ALLIUMS

The Allium family includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks and chives. This family, particularly garlic (Allium sativa), contains a complex mixture of chemicals displaying immunity boosting, anti-cancer anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-blood clotting, cholesterol-reducing, decongestive and digestive properties. There is much evidence to support the theory that eating these foods helps to reduce the incidence of cancers of the colon, tier and breast Unfortunately, many people undergoing cancer treatments, In particular chemotherapy. Find the spell or taste of garlic offensive and nauseating. If this is the case don’t worry about not including garlic in your cooking use onions, leeks and shallots if you like and bear in mind that there are many cancer preventing foods, so keep up your intake of fruits and vegetables.

THINK PULSES

Pulses are strong anti-cancer foods. To look at them they don’t immediately conjure up creative thoughts, but there are lots of things that can be done with the wide variety of pulses available. Many restaurant menus feature either fish or roasted meats served on a bed of Pay lentils, or soups made with pulses, such as Moroccan chickpea soup. Although the basic taste of pulses, tofu and other soya bean products can be quite bland, you can use fresh herbs. garlic and spices such as cumin, coriander and ginger, to turn these foods into delicious meals. Pulses can also be used to stretch meats, make chicken burgers with leftover roast chicken, mashed chickpeas, chopped onions and garlic: add lentils to a shepherd’s pie.

THINK VARIETY

Try to eat a diet that has a variety of different proteins. We need protein to help keep our muscles and immune systems strong Meat has come in for some bad publicity, having been implicated in food hygiene scares, and excessive amounts of red meat have been linked to an increased risk of some cancers – particularly of the colon, rectum and possibly the breast and kidney. However, a small amount of red meat in the region of 85 g/3 oz. a day, two or three times a week, provides a number of useful vitamins and minerals and is perfectly healthy, assuming that it is good quality, lean meat.

There are many other protein-rich foods that can be eaten on non-meat days: fish and shellfish, poultry and game, pulses, tofu and eggs, Children are sometimes reluctant to eat protein, as they may dislike chewing meat or worry about bones in fish. Try disguising meat and fish in pies with tomato or cheesy sauces, or make your own burgers, fish cakes, or rissoles. There is another advantage to eating plenty of fish Oily fish, such as mackerel, herrings, tuna, sardines and salmon, are rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. These facts are thought to have a powerful cancer-slowing action.

WATCH THE BARBECUE

There is evidence to suggest that if you eat a lot of chargrilled and barbecued foods you increase your risk of developing cancer. The foods are thought to react to direct contact with the flame Although restaurants may chargrill foods over a fierce flame, a popular alternative for the home cook is to use a ridged chargrilling pan. It is heated to a high temperature and the food is placed on the hot pan, sealing it and marking it with the distinctive grill lines’.

KEEP FATS LOW

Animal fats consumed in large quantities have been implicated in the development of various cancers, including those of the breast, prostate, lung and colon Breast cancer seems to be more prevalent in women who have a diet high in animal fats and low in fiber Some low-fat spreads contain high levels of a particular type of fat, known as trans fatty acids, if eaten in large quantities these increase the risk of certain cancers.

I always recommend that you use a natural fat such as butter or olive oil, but use only small amounts. Choose foods that are naturally low in fat and limit the consumption of obviously fatty foods such as fried dishes and those coated in copious amounts of creamy, cheesy and oily sauces Enjoy butter, cream and good quality cheese but remember to keep quantities small. Do not be tempted to eat only fat-free products, this is both unnecessary and virtually impossible to do without becoming obsessive. Fat free and fat reduced products are also likely to be high in sugar and artificial additives. Remember that children in particular need some fat in their diet.

DON T BE TOO SWEET

Most of us have become accustomed to a much higher level of sweetness than is natural and healthy. The sweeter foods you eat, the more your body will demand to avoid swings in energy level and moods, so try not to encourage a sweet tooth’ in your children, as this will set a pattern for adulthood. Remember that many manufactured foods have sugar added in one form or another a and even those that claim no added sugar or sugar free often contain artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners have been implicated, but not proven to be, a factor in the development of certain cancers.

For most people the risk is very slight, but if artificially sweetened drinks. sweet snacks and convenience foods feature heavily in your diet, try to wear yourself off sugary foods and drinks – if you do this gradually you will find it quite easy It is much healthier to take advantage of naturally occurring sugars, such as glucose, sucrose or fructose (fruit sugar) rather than artificial ones. Think of fruit as the primary sweetener for desserts or snacks. Fruits can be pureed to mix with yoghurt or spread on breads: dried fruits such as sultanas and dates sweeten cakes and tarter fruits such as apples.

JUST A PINCH OF SALT

There is evidence to support the theory that high Intakes of salty foods increase the risk of stomach cancer. You don’t need to remove delicious salty cheeses, olives, cured meats and fish from your diet altogether, but neither should you be eating them every day. Before adding salt when you are cooking, stop and think how much you really need. One way to cut down on salt is to look to herbs. spices and other flavorings, such as a dash of wine in casseroles, to enhance the flavor of your foods.

WATER, THE ESSENCE OF LIFE

Adults should aim to drink two to two and a half liters four to five pints of water every day. Children should be encouraged to drink plenty of water and healthy fruit drinks. Water helps your body glean all the beneficial anti-cancer nutrients such as antioxidants from the food you eat and also helps your body produce urine through which it excretes unwanted toxic substances.

CUT DOWN ON CAFFEINE

Keep your intake of caffeine containing drinks low Large doses of caffeine not only deplete your body of essential water but they also inhibit the absorption of vitamins and minerals from the gut. Stick to a maximum of two to three cups in total of caffeine-containing drinks, such as tea, coffee, cola or hot chocolate Instead, explore the many herbal and fruit teas that are naturally caffeine-free, Elderly people should be encouraged to try alternative hot drinks, rather than the endless cups of tea they sometimes drink out of habit. Tempt your child to drink fruity, non-caffeine drinks rather than any of the cola or ‘sports drinks that are often astonishingly high in caffeine.

MINE’S A GLASS OF RED WINE, PLEASE!

Studies are emerging that suggest that red wine in moderation, a couple of glasses a day. can not only reduce the incidence of heart disease, but also of cancer Red wine contains a host of antioxidant substances (such as anthocyanin’s tannins. resveratrol, rotini, catching.) that are present to different degrees in different grape varieties, Flavones (such as resveratrol) are antioxidants found within the grape skins; they are thought to inhibit the development of cancer. Some of the studies have been very specific about linking certain grape varieties with certain cancers. For example, wines made from Pinot Noir grapes in the damper regions of France seem to help prevent cancer of the digestive tract Check with your doctor before you drink any alcohol, to make sure that any medications you are taking will not interact adversely and that there is no other contraindication in your health for those of you who don’t like red wine, some flavonoids are also found in fresh grapes, mulberries and peanuts

AVOID NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

There is little evidence to persuade me that your body needs supplements if you cat a well-balanced diet. In fact, the body’s natural balance can be disturbed if you take even one supplement, let alone the handful of pills people swallow every day. Same people think that it is better to take something to be sale them. sorry I don’t agree. You should realize that vitamin, mineral and other nutrient supplements can easily cause the body to become unbalanced, which can bring its own problems and symptoms of toxicity The only exception is when people have health problems that prohibit them from eating certain foods, which could cause them to become deficient in a particular nutrient In this case a supplement would be beneficial. It will probably be suggested by your doctor or dietitian.

LOOK AFTER YOUR GUT BACTERIA

The bowel is home to a colony of gut flora’ that play a number of roles in keeping your body healthy, one of these roles is the production of anti-cancer substances, to replenish your gut bacteria I recommend that you include some healthy bacteria in your diet by eating a small pot of live yoghurt especially the kind made with acidophilus and bifid, every day. A word of warning. People who have a sensitive immune system or gut. including those with irritable bowel syndrome Crohn’s disease or arthritis, should seek advice before taking these flora as they have the potential to irritate the gut and immune system. If you can’t eat yoghurt you could ask a dietitian to suggest another source.

Specific targets

There is not any oriel food that has been shown to cause cancer directly, it is more a question of riot having the right balance of foods in your diet. People who eat lots of fast foods on the hoof, without a fresh fruit or vegetable in sight. are the prime targets. Having said this. I must point out that some people unfortunately develop cancer despite eating a well-balanced diet, because of the role of genetics and environmental factors. But food is something we can act on all you need to know is how to choose the best foods and how to eat them in way that gives your body the best chance, particularly if you are concerned about a certain type of cancer that may be linked to your family’s genes.

BOWEL CANCER

It is thought that a healthy diet could cut the incidence of colon cancer by three quarters A high-fat diet that includes large amounts of fried foods, lots of dairy products. fatty cuts of meat, plus, pastries and very few vegetables and fruits are the worst sort of diet. The best way to keep your fat intake low is to eat just a small amount of the natural products such as cheese and butter along with plenty of fiber There is also evidence supporting exercises role in reducing the incidence of cancer of the colon and rectum. Try to exercise vigorously for at least an hour every week and keep yourself active – even if it is only a brisk walk every day You should also keep your alcohol intake within the healthy guidelines 21 units a week for women and 28 units for men (a unit means a glass of wine half a pint of beer or a single measure of spirits).

STOMACH CANCER

There has been some convincing research that shows that people who consume a lot of salty and smoked foods have an increased risk of developing stomach cancer especially if they don’t cat many fresh fruits and vegetables. Make sure you include plenty of vegetables and fruits in your diet. Remember that ro0 many salty foods can also increase your risk of high blood pressure. so, limit your intake of pickles olives, salt beef, pickled herrings, kippers and smoked salmon. The most common nonfood cause of cancer of the stomach is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, Foods, particularly green leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli. have been shown to help the body kill this bacterium.

MOUTH THRONI AND LIVER CANCER

There is a strong link between these cancers and excessive alcohol intake Stick to the recommended 28 units a week for men and 21 units for women. hopefully including some red wine Smokers should be particularly careful That to drink too much alcohol as the combination of excessive drinking and smoking greatly increases your risk of throat and mouth cancer.

BREAST CANCER

According to the cancer charities and research organizations, eating a healthy diet could halve the incidence of breast cancer Yet again it is the level of fat and fiber which seem to be the core areas where we need to concentrate our efforts but not only in our adult years – evidence also suggests that the earlier in life we start eating healthily the greater our chance of avoiding breast cancer. A high saturated/animal fat intake seems to cause hormone levels, particularly of estrogen, to change within the female body, which increases the risk of breast cancer. There also appears to be a link between low fiber intakes and breast cancer. So, boosting your fiber intake and keeping your saturated fat intake low, as part of a normal healthy diet. is the best advice. Keeping your alcohol intake within the recommended limits and weight within the ideal range after the menopause also help to decrease the risk of breast cancer.

PROSTATE CANCER

Cancer of the prostate is threatening to become even more prevalent than breast cancer, although with both diseases the prognosis is relatively good if it is diagnosed and treated early some exciting research is under way regarding tomatoes Try to have at least ten tomato-based foods a week. You could have pasta with tomato sauce, grilled tomatoes for breakfast or as a vegetable dish tomato soups and sliced tomatoes in sandwiches (hire about the other ingredients as well – tomatoes are not a magical food that cancels out the negative elect of, say, a high-fat pate).

As discussed, The Pittsburgh Cancer Institute has found that vitamin D inhibits prostate cancer in animals, which gives us the hope that it may in future be useful both as a preventive anti-cancer vitamin and as a treatment for prostate cancer Vitamin D is formed by the action of sunlight on the skin and is found in oily fish (herrings, kippers, mackerel, salmon, tuna and sardines), eggs and full-Fat dairy products such as milk, butter and cheese.

This may cause some men to throw their arms up in exasperation, as full-fat dairy products are widely condemned as cholesterol-forming and to be avoided because of the risk of heart disease. Yes, these foods when eaten in excess can form cholesterol in the blood, but it is possible to find a happy medium by boosting your fiber intake. Fiber helps the body excrete unwanted cholesterol so men can include these vitamin D rich foods in a healthy diet, as long as they eat plenty of fiber As well as including tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables and natural carbohydrate foods try to keep your intake of meats and animal fats low, don’t smoke or drink too much and keep yourself active,

After a diagnosis

The response to a cancer diagnosis largely depends on how much you had been expecting the news. It may come as a terrible shock, but some people feel unwell for months and once they know why, there can be a strange feeling of relief that they know what they are dealing with and that they have a team of health care professionals behind them. They can then start building up a plan of attack Food can be an essential part of your plan; it provides your body with the ammunition to fight the cancer cells, prevents others from appearing and also provides you with the inner strength to tolerate cancer therapies.

If you find that your appetite goes, don’t worry, just manage what you can remembering that the sooner you can get back to eating, the stronger chance you will have of beating cancer Some people find the easiest way to kick start their anti-cancer lifestyle is to cleanse the body with a 24-hour fruit and vegetable diet with lots of water Although this can be a strong psychological tool because you feel as if you are clearing the cancer-causing toxins from your body, it doesn’t actually boost your immune system in any way. There is no proof that any of the macrobiotic diets or radical diets do any real good.

In fact, one problem with diets based primarily around vegetables and non-animal foods is that, although plant foods contain a lot of fiber and other substances that can help the body to fight cancer, the bulk of a vegetable and fruit diet can get in the way of your body receiving the nutrients it needs Fiber reduces the absorption of proteins and other essential foodstuffs. So, when you are feeling under the weather and not up to eating much, a small vegetable or fruit meal won’t give you as much sustenance as a small meal that contains some animal proteins. You should try to make sure that your body receives not only plants, but also a regular amount of meat, poultry, fish, cheese and eggs Don’t take risks with food hygiene. A bout of food poisoning is the last thing you need when your immune system is low for more information. Discourage young people from eating food from roadside stalls such as hot dog stands, as these carry a higher-than-average food poisoning risk. Suggest other places where they can meet their friends.

Attacking the problems head on

No two people with cancer will feel the same. For some people nausea is the worst aspect, for others alterations in the way food tastes makes them very depressed However you feel there are things you can do to ease your symptoms: food can be very empowering. The following problems are the most common but if the advice does not seem to help you consult your doctor and dietitian. as nine times out of ten there is something which can help.

LACK OF APPETITE

Lack of appetite can hit you when you have the initial shock of diagnosis, but you may also find throughout your battle with cancer that there are days when you simply cannot face food. The odd day of not eating much will not cause any harm because the likelihood is that you will make up for it the following day. However, if you find that you are going for a few days without feeling like eating, you must seek medical advice.

• The first thing is not to panic or put pressure on yourself Just try something small and light anything. even if it is just a nutritious drink such as a milk shake or simply a biscuit. is better than nothing. Maybe an hour or so later you may be able to manage another small something.

• Grab every opportunity to eat. The time between feeling slightly puckish and actually preparing something can kill the impulse, so keep your fridge stocked with cheeses, fruit compote and dips for vegetables. Have little bowls of nibbles around the house or on your desk. Nuts (being careful if you have young children around), chocolate (preferably good quality chocolate or homemade truffles), crisps, cheese straws few suggestions, for more snack ideas, or crystallized fruits are a .

I would urge you to choose organic produce whenever possible. If you are eating only a small amount, it is important to have the most nutritious foods you can find. An organic tomato, for example, will be higher in vitamins and have a far better flavor than a non-organic tomato that is full of water and potentially high levels of pesticides .

CHANGING TASTE BUDS

If you are undergoing cytotoxic therapy such as chemo- or radiotherapy, your food preferences can change. You may have fancied something in the past but now your body sends out completely different signals. I see some patients who have always loved plain food develop a real taste for spicier dishes.

• Coffee and tea can begin to taste unpleasant this is generally beneficial, because they can hinder the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Never the less you will want an alternative hot drink. One of my favorites is mint tea made simply by pouring hot water on to fresh mint leaves and infusing them for a few minutes. Ginger tea is very refreshing.

• If a particular food such as whole meal bread starts to taste bitter or too rough. think of similar foods as replacements. In this case another type of bread, or pasta or potatoes. Don’t just stop eating the food, as this could cause your diet to become unbalanced or deficient in certain nutrients.

I AM ALWAYS FULL

A heavy, full feeling can arise even when you have had nothing at all to eat. It is frequently associated with radiotherapy to the stomach or following surgery to have part of the stomach removed.

• Make a point of sitting down to cat, laying a place and taking time to eat your main meals. When you rush food, you tend to take in air, which contributes to belatedness and stress.

• Resist drinking while you are eating. Drinks fill your stomach with fluid rather than valuable nutrients. If you find it hard to swallow food without a drink, Lake small mouthfuls and choose moist or sauced food, Wait half an hour after you have eaten before you have a drink by then the stomach will have more space available.

• Rather than three large meals, break up the day with a series of appetizing Snacks, which are small but concentrated in nourishment.

DRY MOUTH

People who are taking strong anti-cancer drugs frequently suffer from dry mouth. It happens because the cocktail of strong drugs cannot differentiate between good and bad cells, so it kills many cells as well as the cancerous onesThe mouth, hair prime targets. The rapidly proliferating cells mouth and stomach are particularly likely affected and this affects process Have hand plenty refreshing tangy juices, drink these throughout the Homemade lemonade, mango juice, freshly squeezed orange grapefruit juice kept fridge real pleasure Serve with two fresh mint and you’ll surprised delicious flavor. Sorbets also good when have mouth For main courses, prepare dishes with plenty sauce, such Dry spicy tend aggravate dry mouth, avoid and little alcoholic drink increases the appetite, reduces production saliva the mouth, which turn aggravate Choose non-alcoholic drink with your meal.

SWALLOWING DIFFICULTIES

Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) common people with mouth throat Sometimes chilled drink will help action swallowing and course best choose foods that naturally such soups, mousses and vegetable purées. Although some health professionals recommend liquidizing meals, this not necessary and generally not very appealing. important not isolate yourself with sub-standard food.

STOMACH AND BOWEL UPSET

Many cancer patients seem suffer from constipation: diarrhea stick dishes that too high vegetable fiber, fiber rough stomach and bowel tolerate. You also need avoid fatty you trying put weight and need boost your calorie consumption, stagger your intake throughout the day, that your body can tolerate the more easily. Have small meals containing some fat, rather than having foods day and then eating fish and chips the evening, Avoid lot dairy products one go, because sometimes concentration lactose (milk sugar) can upset Instead, dairy products combined with other ingredients recipe Ginger, chamomile and mint teas are good digestive.

SENSITIVE STOMACH

The stomach seems fare badly when you taking chemotherapy drugs having radiotherapy the stomach. This happens because cancer treatments attack cells that rapidly divide cancer cells behave this way, but unfortunately do stomach cells, the treatments bombard addition, strong pain killers that are prescribed help ease your discomfort can sometimes make your stomach even more sensitive. To minimize the negative effects of painkillers, it is best not to take them on an empty stomach. Choose plain rather than highly spiced food.

• Try to eat a little something every three to four hours, to give your stomach a coating. It could just be a biscuit or a slice of bread with a little cheese or cold meat . Avoid the temptation to drink milk. Although this gives you an initial cooling effect, it makes your stomach secrete more acid in the long run Try ginger drinks or chamomile or mint tea, which are much more settling.

SICKNESS AND NAUSEA

Although food is the last thing you want to think about when you are feeling sick, sometimes just managing a little something, however small, can help ease the nausea. This is because the food soaks up some of the stomach acids that can aggravate nausea. It also stops your blood sugar level from going too low, which can in itself cause you to feel sick. There are a few simple steps you can take to ease nausea and sickness.

• If you have someone to help you cook, let them do it for you when you are not feeling well. Cooking smells can sometimes put you off your food.

• While food is being prepared go for a little walk if you are up to it. Not only will the fresh air perk up your appetite, but it will also reduce the stale feeling of sickness.

If you are not well enough, simply sit outside for a little, or by an open window. Fill your lungs with fresh air and you will feel livelier and keener for your meal.

• If you are eating alone, settle for cold dishes. Often these are more appealing when you are feeling sick. Try something light but flavorful, such as ciabatta bread with Parmaham, or a tomato, mozzarella and avocado salad.

• Keep stores of favorite things in your freezer, so that you can get them out when you do not feel up too much else. . Ginger is one of the most settling flavors. Some people find sucking on a piece of crystallized ginger relieves nausea.

Keeping some ginger drinks in the fridge is a good idea.