Skin which has been looked after should be firm, yet elastic and full of glowing vitality. Maintaining that happy medium means keeping your skin scrupulously clean and balancing its care to suit every change – from the passing of years to the switch of seasons and temperatures.


Regular cleansing is tremendously important to healthy skin for we need to remove five types of dirt from our faces: perspiration, excess oil from the sebaceous glands, dust, dead cells and make-up Regular protection is necessary. Apart from actual bone structure, your face is made up of muscles, fat and the fluids which fill the tissues and give your face firmness and fullness


When you start to lose muscle mass or fat or fluid, wrinkles appear. This gradual loss of the skin’s elasticity is a natural part of the ageing process and, although you cannot stop it. you can slow it down. A little prevention goes a long way towards warding off prematurely wrinkled skin. Proper cleansing helps, plus toning, moisturizing and conditioning Your skin’s needs vary with age. The pattern to expect is as follows. In your teens normal/dry or oily/problem skin. In your twenties and thirties, normal/dry or oily skin. In your forties and fifties: normal dry or dry skin. Sixties on very dry from your twenties on, pay special attention to the delicate skin around the eyes -the most sensitive part of the face and especially prone to dryness and wrinkles. The throat area is vulnerable too, as is the neck – particularly prone to ageing because it has very few oil glands.


In any year, your skin may need to have its care adjusted. At home, in winter especially, both central heating and constantly varying room temperatures can make the skin feel dehydrated. This calls for more moisturizing care.


Holidays at home or abroad can upset the skin. The weather, including sunlight, temperatures and humidity is generally to blame. From the skin’s point of view, the most detrimental holiday climates are cold dry mountain) air and hot dry desert air, In the former, you need to cleanse less frequently and apply moisturizer more often. In a hot, dry climate you are bound to perspire more which washes away the benefits of your moisturizer, you therefore need to apply it much more frequently. Wherever the water is hard and contains chemicals, avoid soap and water cleansing; use a cleansing lotion instead,

How clean is clean enough?   

No skin can ever be 100 percent clean from one moment to the next, for the skin is constantly discharging a certain amount of sebum and perspiration to keep the moisture and oil balance within the inner skin. It’s important that all the superficial debris is cleansed away regularly otherwise pores will become blocked and blemishes will start A really clean skin should have a uniform color and translucency – free of debris to allow the upper layer to admit and reflect light.

Since sebum flows at varying rates from different skins, an adequate cleansing routine for one skin may be far from sufficient for another. Every skin should be cleansed in the morning to remove the dead skin and oils discharged during the night, then again at bedtime and every time fresh make-up is applied. Frequency depends on the skin type; oily skin may need four or five cleansings a day. 

Toning up 

Tone or freshen your skin after you’ve cleansed it; this is an extension of cleansing. Choose an astringent lotion, skin freshener or toner: all help remove traces of make-up or oil from your skin. Most fresheners tighten the pores temporarily and stimulate circulation

Adding moisture 

Every type of skin needs a moisturizer to help retard the evaporation of natural moisture. Don’t confuse the loss of moisture with the loss of oils; they are two different processes. Oily skins can lose moisture as well as oil and there are lightweight moisturizers for them. For oil-starved skins, there are heavier moisturizers which often add lubrication as well as moisture to help retain liquid in the skin Moisturizing is an important part of any beauty Routine. summer or winter. Your face in constantly exposed to elements which dry out the skin-sun wind and cold weather. for example. Central heating creates a very dry atmosphere which can really upset natural moisture levels in the skin. 

Your skin care routine 

Normal skin: If you are fortunate enough to have normal skin, help keep it that way by using a cream or creamy lotion to cleanse it. At night follow this by washing your face with a mild soap. Tone your skin after cleansing with a non-drying skin freshener. Use a moisturizer at bedtime and under make up – especially  when the humidity is low.

Dry skin:

Remove make-up at night with two applications of cream or a creamy lotion especially formulated for dry skin. You might also want to wash your face with a mild soup Next step tone your skin with a non-drying skin freshener. Since your skin needs plenty of lubrication, use an extra-rich cream at night, paying special attention to your throat and the area around your eyes. In the morning, wash with a gentle lather or – if you have very dry skin- rinse your face with warm water Use a thin film of moisturizer under make-up at all times,

Oily skin:

Wash with a cleanser- preferably medicated in warm water at least three times a day; use a soap, liquid or gel cleanser. Massage with your fingertips, giving special attention to the forehead, nose, chin and hairline. Rinse off suds with warm water. Follow with a cold-water rinse and pat dry. Sponge your face with cotton wool moistened with astringent or a non-oily medicated lotion Blackheads are usually associated with oily skin; they are caused by congestion below the surface. For treatment, see Skin problems.   

Combination skin:

If your skin is dry at the sides and oily down the middle, treat these areas separately – using dry skin preparations on outer areas and an oily skin routine for the middle portion. It is perfectly possible to wash the oily part of your face more frequently than the dry areas. Massage cleanser on oily parts and rinse off with water using your cupped hand or a beaker. LEFT: Face massage step 3. Making gentle circular movements on the end of the chin with the middle fingers of each hand. ABOVE LEFT: Then working the fingers around the mouth towards the nose. ABOVE Smoothing fingers lightly over the cheekbones.

Massage is ‘exercise·        

Massage if performed correctly, brings a fresh supply of ·blood to the skin’s surface, helps clear away impurities, feeds the tissues and tones up tired muscles. Aim to massage your skin once a week. You can use soap suds, moisturizer or a conditioning night cream. Massage for 5 minutes at a time. Always begin on the lower part of the face-working the cream or soap until it is soft and warm. Use six movements – all upward and outward – avoiding the area around the eyes.


 1. Place left hand at the base of the throat and, with a firm circular movement, work up the right side of the neck      towards the chin. Repeat, using the right hand up the left side of the neck.

2. With the backs of the hands slap briskly beneath the chin – one hand and then the other. Shake hands to              prevent stiffness.

3. Place middle fingers of each hand on the point of the chin and make circular movements, working up round the     mouth and in towards the nose. Smooth out lightly over the cheekbones.

4. Place middle fingers of one hand and then the other over cheek. Stroke briskly upwards using alternate hands.       Repeat on the other side of your face.

5. Using both hands stroke up the center of the nose between eyebrows and smooth out over brow towards the         temples.

6. Then knuckle into the brow with rotary movements using alternate hands.

Handle with care

Care for your skin by handling it gently. Soaps, cleansing lotions and creams, moisturizers and conditioning cream should all be applied to the skin as gently possible otherwise you defeat the object of the application which is to maintain youthful, supple and firm skin Never scrub or drag at your face. If you suspect that you are being heavy-handed, handicap yourself. Instead of scooping up dollops of cream on your fingertips wasteful apart from anything else), use the middle finger only of each hand and learn to fingerprint products over the face instead of smearing them on indiscriminately, 

Over the cheeks:

When making-up. never try to apply cheek color to a naked skin. Moisturizer is a must if the color is to go on smoothly and effectively.  

Around the eyes.

When applying moisturizer or cream the delicate skin beneath the eyes, use the middle or fourth finger of catch hand. Look upwards and fingerprint the product on Work upwards over the eyelids towards the outer corners, then inwards towards the nose. Finish with a series of small circular movements at the outer corner of each eye. If you are applying a camouflage product to dark circles or bags under the eyes, dot on the product and leave for a minute or two, until the warmth of the skin softens up the consistency then blend it in with the fingertip. Alternatively, apply and blend with a brush,

On the neckline:

When applying moisturizer or cream to the throat area, make sure that every single movement is upward and outward, this way you are lifting and firming the contours all the time

Signs of the teens, twenties, thirties, forties… 

Knowing how skin changes with age and being aware of the danger areas will help you work out your own individual skin conditioning routine. For this there are day and night moisturizers, conditioning creams for general facial apply cation and more specifically, for the areas around eyes and throat, and face masks. 


A normal skin is smooth, soft and firm, with a clear, healthy color. It can be compared with the unblemished, polished skin of an apple. Even at this age moisturizing is important, as the natural moisture cells begin to deflate. 


The ideal skin resembles that of a peach – softer and smoother, less glow’ than an apple. Moisturizer helps counteract the appearance of fine expression lines around the eyes.


The average skin tends to become drier, losing some of its elasticity and fresh coloring. The main areas to watch are around eyes and mouth. Fine crisscross lines indicate dryness and really dry patches on cheeks forehead show up reddish in color. Remember: laughter not the only emotion the skin around the eyes gives our age away more obviously than we like to think. Perhaps laughter is to blame, but try to keep lines and wrinkles at bay with gentle products and gentle handling of the skin. defense is massage. At this age switch to richer day and night moisturizers and stimulate the skin with massage and moisturizers. 

Early forties:

Watch out for deepening of under-the-eye lines and a tendency for the neck to become drier. Continue the skin care pattern of the thirties and think in terms of 24-hour nourishment. Choose moisture-based make-up ranges and eye and neck creams.

Mid-forties and on:

Without a good skin care routine, your skin will become extra dry and lax, with deeply etched lines around the mouth and eyes and on the forehead. Your skin could lose its natural color and tiny surface capillaries could rupture, leaving small, purple-red blotches. Lax muscles can make the jaw-line heavier and the corners of the mouth might droop. The neck becomes more lined and the throat muscles sag a little. Gentle massage with appropriate creams can give good results in all these vulnerable areas. And remember that skin care need not only be a bedtime routine. 

Skin problems Allergies:

If Your complexion seems constantly itchy, chapped or very rough you may be allergic to certain foods or contact Your doctor and or a dermatologist can usually help you track down the cause of cosmetics are the problem, you can minimize irritations by using hypoallergenic cat cams and make-up.

in spite of that you still think a cosmetic you are using has triggered off a reaction, try to consider whether it is just an intolerance or insensitivity – a feeling of discomfort (eg wrong consistency) – rather than a real allergy Try a patch test. Dab the product on the inside of your wrist and wait 24 hours.

If reddening or swelling occurs you are probably allergic to an ingredient in the product and should stop using it Cosmetic ingredients that can damage the skin are either primary irritants or sensitizers. Primary irritants disturb the skin soon after application so they can be easily identified and avoided. However, the allergic reaction to a sensitizer takes longer to develop-perhaps after weeks or months of trouble free wearing of product.

When you suspect you’re allergic to something write direct to the manufacturer concerned, returning the product and giving as much information as possible along the following lines, State when you used the product and whether you had used it before describe the reaction, where it appeared and how soon after application mention also any history of skin trouble. Manufacturers generally pass on complaints to the company chemist and or consultant dermatologist who should come back with a satisfactory reply und alternative product suggestion Most allergy complaints are resolved.


Minor skin problems can turn into more serious ones if they are not dealt with properly. If blemishes blackheads and spots persist in spite of careful skin care and good health. you should see your doctor. Blackheads are generally associated with oily skin and are caused by coni Gestion below the skin’s surface, Sebum in the skin becomes irritated by bacteria and a blockage occurs when the head of the blockage meets the air it turns black, giving the blemishes their characteristic appearance Cleansing alone will not remove blackheads.

Try softening them with hot compresses, then case them out with a comedic extractor. This is a spoon-shaped instrument with a hole in the bowl through which you ease the blackhead or comedic the medical term. If the number of blackheads increases, this may be a sign that oily skin is not getting clean enough and oil is building up to clog pores. Cleaning your face more often may help to prevent this build up.


This is a common complaint, especially among teen agers. Acne is the result of a disturbance in the activity of the sebaceous glands – glands in the deeper layers of the skin which secrete fatty matter. While the exact cause of the disturbance is not known, both hormone imbalance and local bacterial infections seem to play a part in its development. Doctors suggest that emotional stress, fatigue, nervous tension, improper facial hygiene and certain foods, drugs and cosmetics tend to produce flare-ups of acne – though they are not causing.

Acne can also be hereditary. Although acne cannot be prevented, it can often be controlled once it appears, by following this daily treatment. First scrub your hands, then cleanse your face with a medicated soap, sudsy liquid or gel. Using your fingertips, gently massage lather all over face for a few minutes. Rinse with hot water, then with cool water. Do This three times a day, more often if you can. If you see a pimple starting, apply a solution of equal parts of antiseptic lotion and water on a bit of cotton wool.

Change to a fresh piece of cotton wool every 5 minutes and continue the application for about 30 minutes. Do this twice a day after thorough cleansing. At bedtime and under make-up, you could apply medication, in the form of a flesh-tinted cream or invisible gel. In addition to following this skin care routine, you should drink plenty of water and try not to become constipated. Wear an off-the-face hair-do to keep scalp oils and dandruff from drifting onto your face, and use a medicated shampoo often. If your skin problem is serious enough to require a doctor’s care, he will probably give you a list of foods to avoid and procedures to follow.